Probiotics protected the intestinal epithelial barrier

Functional products are a staple and a necessity of life, which also comprises of food with health benefits. These health benefits include reducing of risk of chronic diseases, promoting development and growth, and improving symptoms of diseases
EBS has conducted a series of cell and animal experiments to confirm the safety and function of our probiotics by :

Researching the relationship between the functional ingredients and health benefits
Formulating the optimal in-take dosage
Confirming the stability and efficacy on a scientific platform

A. In vitro intestinal epithelial cell protection experiment :

Our experiments utilize the Caco-2 cell line, which is commonly used in scientific research when studying the stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells. The polarized property of the Caco-2 cell line means that cells grow in a monolayer formation; thus, we can measure the chemokines and cytokines secreted after the sample is treated, and assess the protective effects of probiotic products used on the intestinal epithelial monolayer against external damage.


B. In vivo intestinal epithelial cell protection experiment :

With increased age, many factors can contribute to the weakening of the intestinal epithelial cells and change in the overall intestinal immune system. Injury of the intestinal epithelial barrier can lead to increased permeability, which in the presence of pathogens and other proteins can cause inflammation leading to the increased risk of food allergies. This can result in diarrhea, vomiting, and/or other gastrointestinal problems. In more severe situations, where the immune system encounters large number of antigens, allergic reactions on the skin or in the airway may appear. Therefore, the protection and reinforcement of the intestines becomes an important key in preventing allergy occurrences that should not be ignored.

The subjects (C57BL/6 mice) were administered 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) which induced inflammatory bowel disease. The subjects were then given our probiotic product in order for us to study the results. We assessed the product function by analyzing the colon length, bleed score, weight change, and histological biopsy.


Probiotics resist against pathogen infection


Escherichia coli (E. coli) are commonly found in the intestine. Contrary to popular belief, most of E. coli strains are harmless to the host and are a part of the normal flora within the intestine. However, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a pathogen strain of E. coli that can cause serious illness. Infection of EHEC is usually transferred through contaminated food products such as ground meat, raw milk, drinking water, and vegetables. EHEC produces “Shiga toxins” which can lead to bellyache, severe and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and uremia.

In this study, the subjects (Balc/c mice) were administered EHEC along with our functional probiotics. At the end of the trial, the liver, ileum, and feces of the subjects were collected to analyze the EHEC translocation in liver and ileum and measure the Shiga toxin in feces. In this model, we assessed whether the use of our functional probiotics could improve the symptoms caused by EHEC by protecting the intestinal mucosa and enhancing the intestinal barrier and overall immune system. Furthermore, results showed that macromolecules allergens, bacteria, and viruses were less able to pass through the intestinal barrier, which decreased intestinal symptoms as well as skin allergies.

Immune tests

A. In vitro immune experiment :

a. Mice splenocytes: The intestinal immune cells migrate to the spleen via lymphatic circulation or blood circulation resulting in the release of a large number of B cells and T cells. The effects on secondary lymphoid tissue after administering our functional probiotics to the mice were observed.

b. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): Canine PBMCs include T cells, B cells, monocytes, and NK cells. We observed a variety of immune cells and how they adjusted to one another after the functional probiotic treatment was provided.


B. In vivo immune experiment :

Balc/c mice were sensitized by repeatedly intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) adsorbed of alum in 28 days. Serum samples from the treated mice were measured the content of OVA-specific IgE; the splenocytes were harvested and co-culturing with OVA after sacrificing. Determination of T helper (Th) 1, Th 2, and T regulator (Treg) cytokines concentration such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IL-13 could be the basis of allergy improvement.